The DBMS must generate audit records for the DoD-selected list of auditable events, to the extent such information is available.
Audit records can be generated from various components within the information system, such as network interfaces, hard disks, modems, etc. From an application perspective, certain specific application functionalities may be audited, as well.
The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating audit records (i.e., auditable events, timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, file names involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked).
Organizations may define the organizational personnel accountable for determining which application components shall provide auditable events.
Auditing provides accountability for changes made to the DBMS configuration or its objects and data. It provides a means to discover suspicious activity and unauthorized changes. Without auditing, a compromise may go undetected and without a means to determine accountability.
The Department of Defense has established the following as the minimum set of auditable events. Most can be audited via Oracle settings; some - marked here with an asterisk - cannot, and may require OS settings.
- Successful and unsuccessful attempts to access, modify, or delete privileges, security objects, security levels, or categories of information (e.g. classification levels).
- Successful and unsuccessful logon attempts, privileged activities or other system level access
- Starting and ending time for user access to the system, concurrent logons from different workstations.
- Successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects.
- All program initiations.
- *All direct access to the information system.
- All account creations, modifications, disabling, and terminations.
- *All kernel module loads, unloads, and restarts.
Check DBMS settings to determine if auditing is being performed on the events on the DoD-selected list of auditable events that lie within the scope of Oracle audit capabilities: - Successful and unsuccessful attempts to access, modify, or delete privileges, security objects, security levels, or categories of information (e.g., classification levels). - Successful and unsuccessful logon attempts, privileged activities or other system-level access - Starting and ending time for user access to the system, concurrent logons from different workstations. - Successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects. - All program initiations. - All account creations, modifications, disabling, and terminations.
If auditing is not being performed for any of these events, this is a finding.
Notes on Oracle audit capabilities follow.
Unified Audit supports named audit policies, which are defined using the CREATE AUDIT POLICY statement. A policy specifies the actions that should be audited and the objects to which it should apply. If no specific objects are included in the policy definition, it applies to all objects.
A named policy is enabled using the AUDIT POLICY statement. It can be enabled for all users, for specific users only, or for all except a specified list of users. The policy can audit successful actions, unsuccessful actions, or both.
Verifying existing audit policy: existing Unified Audit policies are listed in the view AUDIT_UNIFIED_POLICIES. The AUDIT_OPTION column contains one of the actions specified in a CREATE AUDIT POLICY statement. The AUDIT_OPTION_TYPE column contains 'STANDARD ACTION' for a policy that applies to all objects or 'OBJECT ACTION' for a policy that audits actions on a specific object.
select POLICY_NAME from SYS.AUDIT_UNIFIED_POLICIES where AUDIT_OPTION='GRANT' and AUDIT_OPTION_TYPE='STANDARD ACTION';
To find policies that audit privilege grants on specific objects:
select POLICY_NAME,OBJECT_SCHEMA,OBJECT_NAME from SYS.AUDIT_UNIFIED_POLICIES where AUDIT_OPTION='GRANT' and AUDIT_OPTION_TYPE='OBJECT ACTION';
The view AUDIT_UNIFIED_ENABLED_POLICIES shows which Unified Audit policies are enabled. The ENABLED_OPT and USER_NAME columns show the users for whom the policy is enabled or 'ALL USERS'. The SUCCESS and FAILURE columns indicate if the policy is enabled for successful or unsuccessful actions, respectively.
select POLICY_NAME,ENABLED_OPT,USER_NAME,SUCCESS,FAILURE from SYS.AUDIT_UNIFIED_ENABLED_POLICIES where POLICY_NAME='POLICY1';
Fix Text (F-21976r391939_fix)
Configure the DBMS's auditing settings to include auditing of events on the DoD-selected list of auditable events.
1) Successful and unsuccessful attempts to access, modify, or delete privileges, security objects, security levels, or categories of information (e.g., classification levels)
To audit granting and revocation of any privilege: create audit policy policy1 actions grant; create audit policy policy2 actions revoke;
To audit grants of object privileges on a specific object: create audit policy policy3 actions grant on .